Music 63 - Music and Culture

Sakai Listening Lists

Click here for class syllabus.
Click here to go to my list of courses.

Listening list #1: Sub-Saharan Africa

Track Country/Region Title Instrumentation Notes Performance recorded Timing

I. Instrument examples
1 Central African Republic Example of "talking instrument" Pit xylophone See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 50, graphic 6.3 0:13
2 Ghana Example of donno or luna drum Donno A performance of rhythms of the Tigari cult of the Dagomba people of North Ghana.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 42 fig. 5.29
Mustapha Tettey Addy 1:08
3 Ghana Example of gongs ga (gankogui) double iron bells Gongs ga From the Ga people of southern Ghana.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 56
Mustapha Tettey Addy 0:37
4 Burundi Example of whisper-singing vocal technique Voice, inanga A professional performer who sings a praise song for a patron and accompanies himself on the inanga trough-zither. 0:48
5 Central African Republic Example of yodeling vocal technique Voice A lullaby sung by a woman who also claps her hands. 0:38
6 Burundi Example of notched, end-blown flute Played by an anonymous shepherd. This instrument is made of dried bark and has between two and four holes.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 53 fig. 6.4
0:51
7 Gabon Example of mugongo (musical bow) Mugongo With rattan string. The player's mouth acts as a resonator.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 54 fig. 6.6
0:53
8 Kenya Example of bungo horn Bungo, kayamba (rattles) An aerophone played with buzzed lips like a trumpet made from a large wooden tube with a gourd extension.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 53 fig. 6.5
0:45
9 Guinea Example of a seron (lyre) Seron 17 strings. The professional performer is singing part of an epic about a Malinke warrior.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 54 fig. 6.7 (a similar lyre).
0:47
10 Burundi Example of inanga (trough zither) Inanga 8 strings made of ox tendons.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 55 fig. 6.9b
0:50

II. Traditional Music
11 Ghana Atsia Suite (Hatsiatsia and Circle Atsia [Style or Display] Ewe drumming ensemble See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 58-62 Zadonu African Music and Dance Company, Kobla Ladzekpo, director (CalArts LP 12219) 8:29
12 Ghana Hatsiatsia parts from Atsia [track 11] Atoke 1, atoke 2, gankogui 1, gankogui 2 See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 58 Alfred Ladzekpo 1:02
13 Ghana Circle Atsia examples Gankogui, axatse, kaganu, kidi, sogo See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 60-61 Alfred Ladzekpo 1:18
14 Ghana Atsimewu signals and patterns from Circle Atsia [track 1] Atsimewu drum See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 60 Alfred Ladzekpo 1:23
15 Ghana Donno drummers Four donno players and one gyamadudu.  (Among the Dagbamba people these drums are called the luna and gun-gon, respectively.) From Yeji, a village in northern Ghana. Such ensembles are common sights at markets and festivals in this region. 3:25
16 Senegal Jali Nyama Suso -- Yundum Nko 2 kora (harp-lutes) and voice Praise-song commemorating a Gambian man, sung by a jali or professional musician of the Mande people of West Africa.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 64-66
Jail Nyama Suso. 5:00
17 Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire) Honey Gathering Song Chorus, koko (wooden clappers) The Pygmies of Central Africa are known for their dense polyphony in addition to their use of polyrhythm. In this song. In this song the "buzz" of the polyphony imitates the sound of the bees. Mbuti pygmies of the Ituri Forest. 1:32
18 Zimbabwe Nhemamusasa 2 mbira dzavadzimu, hosho See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 67-68 Hakurotwi Mude, Cosmas Magaya, and Ephraim Mutemasango 6:30
19 Zimbabwe Nhemamusasa examples: basic ostinato, high melody, middle melody, low melody mbira dzavadzimu See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 67-68 0:56

III. Popular Music
20 Nigeria Fela Anikulapo Kuti -- No Buredi [No bread], 1976 Afro-beat/Highlife
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 72-76
Fela and The Africa 70 3:26
21 Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire) Kanda Bongo Man -- excerpt from Liza (1993) Soukous Kanda Bongo Man and band 7:34

IV. Fusion Art Music
22 South Africa Kevin Volans -- White Man Sleeps, first movement (1985) String quartet Kronos String Quartet 4:25

Listening list #2: Middle East

Track Country/Region Title Instrumentation Notes Performance recorded Timing

I. Instrument Examples
1 Bahrain Example of ‘ud from performance of taqsim in maqam Hejaz ‘ud The ‘ud is a fretless pear-shaped lute.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 84, top
Sultan Hamid 0:34
2 Iran Example of sehtar from performance in dastgah al-Shari sehtar The sehtar is a fretted long-necked lute.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 84 second from top
Hussein Ali Zodeh 0:50
3 Egypt Example of rabab (from Zahrat el loxor [The Rose of Luxor]) rabab The rabab is a bowed spike fiddle.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 84 bottom
Metqal Quenaoui Metqal and Les musiciens du Nil 0:35
4 Egypt Example of arghul (from a performance of a taqsim) arghul The arghul is a double clarinet. This is an example of the smallest Eqyptian version, called the arghul al asghar or orma.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 86 second from top
Mustafa Abdel Aziz 0:40
5 Egypt Example of mizmar (from a performance of a taqsim) Three mizmars and tabla baladi (drum) See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 86 top (the similar zurna) Qenawi Bakhit Genawi and Les musiciens du Nil 0:36
6 Turkey Example of a nay and frame drum (from Semai in maqam Hidjat, composed by Nayi Osman Dedl, 17th century) Two nays and a def (frame drum) The nay is a notch-blown vertical flute. This piece is from the Sufi tradition of Turkey.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 85 bottom and p. 86 second from bottom
Kudsi Erguner and Süleyman Erguner 0:46
7 Egypt Example of darabukka (from Ya faraoule [Oh, Strawberry] The darabukka is a tuned goblet drum. Saïd Mohammed Ali and Les musiciens du Nil
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 86 bottom
0:35
II. Islamic Music
8 Egypt Adhan Solo chant The Islamic call to prayer.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 83
3:02
9 Algeria Qur'an recitation Chorus chant See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 82-83 The religious brotherhood of Al-Ateuf 2:28
10 Egypt Dhikr [Remembrance] Sufi ceremony
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 83
Members of the Guneydiyah sect of the Fayoum Oasis, led by Ismail Ali Hasan and Abdel Hamid Abdel Aziz 2:20
III. Classical Music
11 Bahrain Taqsim in maqam hijaz ‘Ud See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 87 Graphic 7.3 Sultan Hamid 3:30
12 Egypt Aamedat el Karnak [The Pillars at Karnak] Les Musiciens du Nil 6:07
13 Lebanon Waslah in Maqam Huzam Violin, qanun, ‘ud, riqq See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 91-92 Ensemble of Classical Arab Music: Nidaa Abou Mrad (violin), Mohamad Ayache (voice and ‘ud), Maria Makhoul (qanun), and Ali Wehbè (Byblos Records) 4:20
14 Iran Dastgah Mahur Tar See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 97-98 Hussein Ali Zodeh (Topic Records Ltd.) 5:00
IV. Popular Music
15 Egypt Kayfa Marat
[How do hearts own you?
by Riad al-Sunbati and Ahmed Rami
Singer and firqa orchestra A qasidah in maqam bayati
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 93 and fig. 7.3
Umm Kulthum 6:55
16 Egypt Fire Dance
by Fathy Salama
Mizmar, rabab, arghul, tabl baladi, electric bass guitar, riqq, bongos, nay, qanun A modern composition that imitates wedding ensembles of Upper Egypt, alternating maqam saba and maqam bayati shuri.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 94 and fig. 7.4
Sharkiat 3:53
V. Jewish Music
17 Israel Example of shofar Shofar horns See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 99 fig. 7.6 0:17
18 Israel Hava Netze Bamachol/El Ginat Egoz/Hora Eylat (Let Us Go to the Dance/To the Garden of Walnut/The Hora of Eylat) Flute, guitar, accordion, and drums Israeli folk dance 5:39
19 USA Rumenisher Doyne Klezmer band. A "doina" is a type of lament from Romania derived from Jewish cantor songs. This version was originally recorded in the US in the 1920s.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 102-104
Klezmer Conservatory Band with Don Byron, clarinet. 3:59

Listening list #3: Eastern Europe

Track Country/Region Title Instrumentation Notes Performance recorded Timing

I. Instrument examples
1 Bulgaria Example of gadulka Gadulka (3- or 4-string fiddle found throughout Eastern Europe) and voice. This excerpt is from Zhalna goro, zhal mi e za tebe, a piece performed while guests are seated for a wedding feast.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 118 fig. 8.9
0:55
2 Bulgaria Example of kaval Kaval (a rim-blown notch flute held diagonally from the mouth) This excerpt comes from a piece called Triti Puti.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 117 fig. 8.8
1:05
3 Bulgaria Example of gaida Gaida (a folk bagpipe common, with different names, throughout rural areas of Eastern Europe) and voice This example comes from a piece called Lichkoljo glaven Lichkojo.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 118 fig. 8.10
1:16
4 Bulgaria Example of zurna and tupan The zurna loud double-reed with a bell-flare like those in the Middle East or Western Europe in the Middle Ages (shawm). The tupan is a large cylindrical drum. This excerpt comes from a piece called Koinali.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 117 fig. 8.8, left
1:07
5 Bulgaria Vetar Vee [The Wind Blows] (Example of singing style) 2 voices. This brief duet of women singers is a good example of some distinctive characteristics of Bulgarian singing: a bright, almost harsh tone; improvised polyphony including dissonant seconds; the use of glottal stops and sliding pitches; and the provikvaniya, a yell-like ornament heard at the end of the selection. Translation of lyrics:
The wind blows
and the forest is swaying.
and the forest is swaying.
0:37
6 Lithuania Example of kankles Kankles (a 5- to 10-string plucked zither, similar to those in many other areas of Eastern Europe) and voice. Kankles are often played in ensembles in the Baltics and Belarus. This example comes from "In the Woods," a folk song arranged for an ensemble of kankles and singer using modern harmonies.

For a similar instrument, see Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 122 fig. 8.13

0:54
7 Lithuania Example of skudakai Skudakai (a set of end-blown wooden pipes) Often played by an ensemble of 3 to 6 players. Each pipe can play only one note, so melodies have to be formed by precise alternation playing. This excerpt comes from a piece called Grandmother Herds the Billy-Goat. 0:48

II. Hungarian and Romani music
8 Romania Sirba Nuntasilor Gypsy orchestra An example of the "gypsy" style played by urban bands in Eastern Europe.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 113-114, fig. 8.4
Ion Albesteanu (violin) and his orchestra. 3:13
9 Hungary Harom Magyar Nepdal Folk orchestra, including violins, cimbalom, clarinet, and other instruments A traditional song in a modern arrangement that demonstrates both the parlando-rubato and tempo giusto styles of traditional Hungarian songs.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 114
Szöllössi Erzsébet (voice), with the folk music group Maros 3:18
10 Hungary Aj ke sostar mange [What is my young life for?] See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 116 Rézmüves and Balog Families (Hungariton Records) 5:14
11 Hungary Béla Bartók -- Movement 4 from Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celeste (1936) Orchestra Béla Bartók was a leading modern composer of the 20th century and also a pioneering ethnomusicologist. He applied his study of Eastern European music to his art music compositions such as this one. BRT Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Alexander Rahbari 8:31

III. Bulgaria
12 Bulgaria Krivo Horo [Crooked Dance] Gadulka, tambura, kaval, gaida, and tupan. See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 117-118 Bitov orchestra 1:51
13 Bulgaria Dilmano, Dilbero Chorus and folk ensemble See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 119-120 Koutev National Folk Ensemble (JVC International records) 1:37
14 Bulgaria Polegnala e Todora [Theodora is sleeping] Chorus In this love song, Todora reproaches the wind for waking her. She was dreaming of her lover bringing her flowers to celebrate their engagement. This is a modern arrangement by the "father of the Bulgarian concert folk music tradition," Philip Koutev (1903-1982). Bulgarian State Radio and Television Female Choir. 3:10

IV. Russia
15 Russia Play, Skomoroshek Chorus A Russian formula song sung as a lamentation at weddings.

See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 123-124

Dmitry Pokrovsky Ensemble 2:01
16 Russia Excerpt from Svadebka [The Wedding] (1917-21) by Igor Stravinsky Chorus, pianos, percussion. This work was the culmination of Stravinksy's period of interest in Russian folklore. It sets bits of dialogue and song from traditional Russian peasant weddings in a stream-of-consciousness manner. It is scored for solo singers, chorus, four pianos, and percussion. In this section that ends the 23-minute work, we hear scenes from the wedding feast, where the bride's father is teased for "selling" his daughter for drink (see track #14), the bride and groom are toasted, and then finally sent to bed with ritual wedding night song. As the bride and groom disappear into the bedroom, the church bells toll in the distance.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 122
5:42

Listening list #4: Latin America

Track Country/Region Title Instrumentation Notes Performance recorded Timing
1 Argentina El Choclo [Lit. The Ear of Corn, Eng. version Kiss of Fire] Hotel orchestra of four bandoneon (accordions), five violins, piano, and bass An Argentinian tango 2:46
2 Parguay Llegada [Arrival] Guaraní harp and guitar An adaptation of a folk song in the style of a galopa dance. 3:08
3 Mexico Siquisiri Son See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 160-164 Grupo Chicontepec 3:22
4 Mexico Silvestre Revueltas (1899-1940) -- "Baile" from Homenaje a Federico Garcia Lorca. ["Dance" from Homage for Federico Garcia Lorca] (1935) Chamber orchestra Revueltas here imitates the lively dances of popular urban ensembles, who sometimes compete for listeners and play at the same time. This colorful and spirited evocation is framed by a more serious lament played by a lone trumpet, but both are ways that Revueltas does homage to the great Spanish poet Federico Garcia Lorca, who was killed in the Spanish Civil War just prior to the composition of this piece.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 165
Fernando Lozano cond. Orchestre Philharmonique de Mexico 2:21
5 Cuba Eleggua Batá drum ensemble. A ritual in the Santaria religion, calling the oricha (spirit) Eleggua.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 153-154, 166-167
Conjunto Folklorico Nacional de Cuba 2:29
6 Cuba María Teresa Vera -- Veinte Años Bolero
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 167-168, 173
Buena Vista Social Club 1:43
7 Cuba Arsenio Rodriguez -- Tumba y bongó Son montuno
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 170-172
Candido con Arsenio Rodriguez y Estrellas 2:54
8 Brazil Amazônia An Afro-Brazilian religious song from northeastern Brazil. This is a greeting song for the symbolic arrival of dieties at the festival of Oxóssi-São Sebastião.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 174
1:43
9 Brazil Ritmo Samba Batucada See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 175, 177-179 Nelsinho e Sua Orquestra
3:28
10 Brazil Jorge Ben -- Ponta de Lança Africano (Umbabarauma) (1976) An example of MPB, popular music originally based on the samba, but also influenced by jazz, rock, and, in this case, Afro-Brazilian songs. It is a celebration of an Afro-Brazilian soccer star. Translation of lyrics:
Umbabarauma, goal man
Play ball, play ball, corocondo
Play ball, play ball, ball player
Jump, jump, fall, get up, go up get down
Kick, open a hole, thrill and give thanks
See how the whole city empties out
on this beautiful afternoon
Just to see you play.
Umbabarauma, goal man
Play ball, play ball, corocondo
Play ball, play ball, ball player
Here here here, corocondo
Terere terere terere terere goal man
Terere terere terere terere goal
This is the story of Umbabarauma
An African point man
A point man whose mind is made up
Umbabarauma

See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 175-176

Jorge Ben and band 4:08
11 Brazil Morena, Morena [The Dark Woman] Voice, guitar, cello, and two recorders A nineteenth-century modhina of uncertain authorship.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 176
2:35
12 Peru Excerpt from Palomita torkasita Harp A huayno
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 181 and p. 37 fig. 5.13
2:02
13 Bolivia Yawar mallcu Sikus (pan-pipes) and drum. An indigenous folksong
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 181, fig. 10.18 and 10.19
1:29

Listening list #5: India

Track Country/Region Title Instrumentation Notes Performance recorded Timing

I. Brief Examples
1 India Invocation to Kubera voice Vedic chant from the Sama-veda
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 245-246 & fig. 13.2
2:02
2 North India Raga Desh examples (that, arohana/avarohana, chalan) Sarod See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 256, Graphic 13.1 David Trasoff 0:57
3 North India Raga Khamaj examples (that, arohana/avarohana, chalan) Sarod See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 257, graphics 13.2, 13.3 David Trasoff 1:00
4 North India Raga Desh alap Sitar, tambura See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 256 and Graphic 13.1 Rais Khan 9:00
5 North India Example of Raga Desh on Basri Basri, tabla, tambura Gat section with tabla in Jhaptal tala
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 256 and Graphic 13.1
3:48
6 North India Example of short alap for Raga Darbari Sitar, tambura Vilayat Khan 2:01
2 North India Examples of tala and theka:
Tintal (4+4+4+4)
Ektal (2+2+2+4+2)
Jhaptal (2+3+2+3)
Rupak (3+2+2)
Tabla See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 260-261 Nawal Kishore Singh 4:37
3 North India Example of Dhamar Tala Pakavaj 5:24

II. North Indian Classical Music
7 North India Hazrat Turkaman Voice, sarangi, tabla, tambura A khyal in raga Darbari, tala Ektal. Translation of lyrics:
Hazrat Turkaman, most revered Master with deepest respect
I consecrate myself to you ever and again
My true Spritual Teacher, my Pir
O "Blazing Sun of the Most Exalted Ones"
Take away all suffering and poverty,
Let your radiance illuminate the two worlds.
Pandit Pran Nath, voice
Mohammed Ahmed Bane, sarangi
Prem Waleb, tabla
4:44
8 India Raga Khamaj (beginning) Sarod, tabla, tampura See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 262-266 Ustad Ali Akbar Khan, sarod; Pandit Mahapurush Misra, tabla (AMMP Records) 4:35
9 India Raga Khamaj (conclusion) Sarod, tabla, tampura See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 262-266 Ustad Ali Akbar Khan, sarod; Pandit Mahapurush Misra, tabla (AMMP Records) 5:53

III. South Indian Classical Music
12 South India Excerpt from Raga Shadvidha Margini Vina, mrdangam, tambura Tala rupaka (2+4) S. Balachander, vina
R. Ramesh, mrdangam
3:12
13 South India Ninnadanela by Tyagaraja (excerpt) Voice, violin, mrdangam, kanjira (tambourine), tambura See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 269-272 Vidwan Ramnad Krishnan, voice
V. Thyagarajan, violin; T. Ranganathan, mrdangam; V. Nagarajan, kanjira (Nonesuch records)
4:13

IV. Folk and Popular Music
14 Pakistan Nat Sharif Voices, 2 tanpura (= Indian tambura), 2 dholak (small drums), tabla, and two harmoniums A Qawali song from the Sufi tradition in praise of the Prophet Mohammed. The text is by the poet Manawar Badayuni and is in the Urdu language:
Distances shrink and proximities stretch to horizons;
Only those whom the Prophet desires find fulfillment,
Though Mohammed is not God, he is not apart from God;
Such is the cosmic personality of Mohammed.
Millions lose their way in the wildernesses of life;
Only the fortunate few, he clasps to his bosom.
The proud and the wealthy are turned away,
But destitutes like me cling to the door.
The meaning of Munawar's quest is:
That he would gladly give his life for a glimpse of the Prophet's face.

See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 267 and fig. 13.4

Haji Ghulam Farid Sabri and his family 6:01
15 Bengal Excerpt from Chor Poreche Babur Bagane [A thief fell upon the master's garden] The singer accompanies herself with a dotara and ankle bells, while other musicians play khamak, ektara, harmonium, and finger cymbals. A song by a Baul ensemble.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 272-273, figure 13.6
3:16
16 India "Dil Cheez Kya Hai" ["What is a Heart?"] by Khayyam (excerpt) Film song See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 274-278 Asha Bhosle, singer 4:48
17 United States Oregon -- Excerpt from Violin Jazz ensemble A group improvisation by this fusion jazz ensemble.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 159-160
Paul MacCandless (woodwinds), Glen Moore (bass, piano), Ralph Towner (guitar, trumpet), Collin Walcott (tabla, sitar) with guest artist Zbigniew Seifert (violin). 3:30

Listening list #6: China

Track Country/Region Title Instrumentation Notes Performance recorded Timing
1 China Examples of Guqin Playing Techniques Guqin See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 294, fig. 14.2 Tsar Teh-yun 3:13
2 China Kao shan liu shui [High Mountains and Flowing Water] Zheng Associated with the Zhijiang school. It has become a favorite piece for all zheng players since the 1920s.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 289, 290 top
Wang Wei 5:38
3 China Shi mian mai fu [Ambush from Ten Sides] Pipa A programmatic piece depicting a historical battle between the King of Chu and the founder of the Han Dynasty that occurred sometime in the period 206-203 BCE. The first section depicts the military of Chu and the second the ambush of his army by the Han army.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 289, 290 second from top
Lui Pui-yuen 7:10
4 China Excerpt from Yang-kuan san tieh [Three repetitions at Yang-kuan] Xun (ancient globular clay ocarina) A folksong from the Shensi region of North China, a setting of a famous ch'i-chueh, a poetic form of 28 characters, by Wang Wei (699-759):
Here in Wei-ch'eng
the morning rain
wets down the light dust and
turns afresh the green, green willows in the inn.
Bottoms up, once again, please.
Westward beyond Yang-kuan
there will be
no more
old friends.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 291 second from top
Liang-Ming Yueh 1:13
5 China Excerpt from Lao sen saqo tien [Old Monk Sweeping the Buddhist Temple] Sheng A fourteenth-century folksong from the Shantung region of northern China.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 292 top, 293
Liang-Ming Yueh 0:31
6 China Excerpt from Beyond the Great Wall Sanxian, dizi An arrangement by Li Yi of an ancient folksong. It tells of the lament of the concubine of a Han Dynasty emperor and her longing for her homeland.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 291 second from top
Xu Feng Xia and Du Chong 0:51
7 China Ping sha lo yen [Wild Geese Descending onto the Sandbank] Guqin See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 294-296 Li Xianting, guqin (Ode Record Company) 6:22
8 China Fan Instead of Gong Sizhu chamber music.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 297-298 Shanghai Traditional Music Society: Zhou Hui, yangqin; Zhou Hao, erhu; Tu Bing-rong, pipa; Shen Ji-sun, ruan; Shen yi-xin, xiao; Dai Shu-hong, xiao 6:57
9 China "An Island in the Sea" from Gui Fei Zui Jiu [The Drunken Concubine] Jingxi orchestra See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 182-187 Mei Lanfang with Xiao Changhua and Jiang Miaoxiang. 4:59
10 China A Stroll in New Town Chinese orchestra and zhuihu A work for modern orchestra of mostly traditional instruments featuring a solo on zhuihu (similar to the erhu). This is an adaptation of a Tibetan folksong about a father and daughter conversing as they ride through Lhasa.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 302-305
Zeng He-Yun and the Chinese Orchestra of the Shanghai Music Conservatory 2:32

 

 

 

Listening list #7: Japan

Track Country/Region Title Instrumentation Notes Performance recorded Timing
1 Japan Daiwa gaku by Jin Nyodo (1891-1966) Shakuhachi See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 309-310, 321-323 Bill Shozan Schultz 3:08
2 Japan Excerpt from Ise-Dai Kagura [Grand Festival of Ise] Kagura ensemble: taiko drums, fue (flutes), others A lion dance at a folk festival, or kagura, from the Masuda Shrine of Kuwana, annually performed on December 24.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 311-312
1:46
3 Japan Example of Shomyo (Buddhist chant) Chorus, woodblock This is a recording of a rite known as Shuni-e or Hana-e Shiki. The performance begins with the hitting of an iron or copper gong with a bone mallet. The monks then recite the names of the Boddhisattvas, the holy men who have retained human form even after reaching nirvana, so that they may enlighten others. The leader of the chant is called the doshi.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 312-313
Monks at Yakushi-ji Temple in Nara 0:58
4 Japan Japanese scales (ryo, ritsu, yo, in, ryukyu) and demonstrations of shakuhachi ornamentation and playing techniques Shakuhachi See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 313-314 and Graphic 15.1 Bill Shozan Schultz 4:45
5 Japan Etenraku, Nokorigaku Sanben Gagaku orchestra See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 314-320 Imperial Court Ensemble of Tokyo (Legacy International Records) 9:45
6 Japan Yatsuhashi Kengyo (1614-1685): Rokudan no shirabe [Study in Six Sections] Koto See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 324-326 Nakanoshima Kin'ichi (JVC International records) 7:44
7 Japan Azuma Jishi [The Lion Dance of Jishi] A san-kyoku ensemble consisting of shamisen, koto, and shakuhachi A late eighteenth-century piece for classical ensemble. The shakuhachi quotes a version of Rokudan (track 6) when it first enters. See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 320-321, fig. 15.5 Members of the Ensemble Nipponia 3:37
8 Japan Excerpt from Deha Noh ensemble Noh drama. See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 324, 327-328 2:30
9 Japan Excerpt from Mitsu men komori [The Three Masks of Komori] Kabuki orchestras, voices A kabuki drama composed in 1829. In this scene a young nanny attempts to amuse a small child by dancing with three masks. See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 329-331 2:32

Listening list #8: Indonesia

Track Country/Region Title Instrumentation Notes Performance recorded Timing

I. Java
1 Central Java Examples of some Javanese gamelan instruments: Saron, Kenong, Ketuk, Kempul, Gong See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 340-342 0:42
2 Central Java Pangkur Javanese gamelan Ladrang slendro manyura. See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 347-352 Ensemble Karawitan Raras Raos Irama, gamelan Kyai Sekar Tunjung, pesinden Mugini. 15:31
3-7 Central Java Individual instrument parts to Pangkur[track 2]: 3. Gender barung, 4. Rebab, 5. Gambang, 6. Kendang, 7. Bonang Barung In these examples, a master Javanese musician plays each of five prominent instruments from Ladrang Pangkur (track 6). In some tracks he is accompanied by slentem playing the balungan (main melody) in the background to provide orientation. See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 347-348, 352 Trustho 1:11
1:17
1:05
1:18
1:01
8 Central Java Excerpt from Pangkur (pelog) Javanese gamelan Ladrang pelog barang. 2:55
9 Central Java Excerpt from Srimpi Sangapati Javanese gamelan Ketuk 2 kerep pelog barang. This is a highly refined, courtly dance for four women representing stories from Islamic epics in highly symbolic movements. The entire performance in this version lasts just over an hour. Royal gamelan of the court at Surakarta 3:59
10 Central Java Excerpt from Danaraja Gadon Ketuk 4 arang minggah ketuk 8, slendro sanga. Performed by gadon, a chamber group featuring only the elaborating instruments of the full gamelan: rebab, suling, and gender barung. Sarasehan Krawitan Surakarta, directed by Saptana. 4:22

II. Bali
11 Bali Gending Pengalang Bebarongan Gamelan gong kebyar See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 360-362 Gamelan Punia Bhakti directed by I Nyoman Wenten 5:28
12 Bali Balinese Gamelan examples: detuning, pokok (core melody), polos (interlocking part 1), sangsih (interlocking part 2), kotekan (interlocking parts together), kotekan with pokok See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 359 0:59
13 Bali Purana -- Hujan Mas [Golden Rain] Gamelan gong kebyar This is a gamelan gong kebyar composition from the 1960s that typifies the genre. 6:26
14 Bali Excerpt from Baris Gamelan semar pegulingan The classic warrior dance of Bali. This gamelan is a gamelan semar pegulingan, an ancient and now uncommon 7-tone gamelan, though Baris is more commonly played on the usual gamelan gong kebyar.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 357-358
Gamelan "Tirta Sari" of Peliatan, Bali 3:35
15 Bali Sekar Sungsang Gender wayang A performance of gender wayang, the quartet of slendro-tuned metallophones that traditionally accompany the wayang shadow puppet play in Bali.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 33, fig. 5.2
6:00
16 Bali Kecak excerpt Chorus A performance of kecak, also known as cak or "monkey chant," the famous interlocking chant of Bali in which voices imitate the instruments of the gamelan. This piece accompanies a dance representing a particular scene from the Ramayana.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 358
Kecak chorus of Peliatan. 4:44
17 Bali Gending Sekar Gadung Gamelan selunding A performance on the gamelan selunding -- a rare and very sacred ensemble made up entirely of iron metallophones, not the bronze instruments found in common gamelan.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 11 fig. 2.4
Gamelan selunding ensemble of Tenganan village, directed by I Nyoman P. Gunawan. 7:54

III. American Gamelan
18 United States Lou Harrison -- Threnody for Carlos Chávez (1979) Gamelan degung (from West Java) The American composer Lou Harrison has written a large amount of music for gamelan, but deriving as much from his experience as a composer in the American experimental tradition as from traditional Javanese theory. His pieces often incorporate Western instruments into gamelan. This piece is a threnody, or lament, on the death of the Mexican composer Carlos Chávez featuring solo viola.
See Music of the Peoples of the World, p. 364
Gamelan Sekar Kembar, Susan Bates, viola. 7:05

Updated on January 22, 2012